Notes on "Head First: Object-Oriented Analysis & Design" - Appendix II (Start Here)

Jul 24th, 2020

These are my notes for the book Head First: Object-Oriented Analysis & Design. Information provided here originates from the the book (and therefor the authors who wrote it). I highly, highly recommend getting the book yourself and reading it fully. This is just the information that I felt was most important for myself. The coding problems and exercises they provide are worthwhile, and should be a good enough reason to purchase it. Let's get started!

Inheritance

When one class inherits behavior from another class, and can then change that behavior if needed.

Jet is a subclass of Airplane. Airplane is the superclass for Jet.

Jet extends from the Airplane class. That means it inherits all of Airplane's behavior to use for its own.

super is a special keyword that refers to the class that this class has inherited behavior from.

Jet also inherits the getSpeed() method from Airplane. Since Jet uses the same version, we don't need to write any code to change it.

1public class Jet extends Airplane {
2 private static final int MULTIPLIER = 2; // the subclass can add its own vars
3 
4 public Jet() {
5 super(); // calls the constructor of `Airplane`
6 }
7 
8 public void setSpeed(int speed) {
9 // the sublcass can change the behavior of its superclass
10 // as well as call the superclass's methods. This is called
11 // overriding the superclass's behavior.
12 super.setSpeed(speed * MULTIPLIER);
13 }
14 
15 // a sublcass can add its own methods to the methods it inherits from
16 // its superclass
17 public void accelerate() {
18 // You can call `super.getSpeed()`, but you can also
19 // just call `getSpeed()`, just as if `getSpeed()` were
20 // a normal method defined in `Jet`.
21 super.setSpeed(getSpeed() * 2);
22 }
23}

Polymorphism

Closely related to inheritance. When one class inherits from another, then polymorphism allows a subclass to stand in for the superclass.

Jet subclasses Airplane, that means anywhere you use Airplane, you can use Jet.

1Airplane plane = new Airplane();
2Airplane plane = new Jet();
3Airplane plane = new Rocket();

What's so useful about polymorphism?

You can write code that works on the superclass, like Airplane, but will work with any subclass type, like Jet or Rocket, so your code is more flexible.

I still don't get how polymorphism makes my code flexible.

Well, if you need new functionality, you could write a new subclass of Airplane. Since your code uses the superclass, your new subclass will work without any changes to the rest of our code. That means your code can change easily.

Encapsulation

When you hide the implementation of a class in such a way that it is easy to use and easy to change. It makes the class act as a black box that provides a service to its users, but does not open up the code so someone can change it or use it the wrong way. Encapsulation is a key technique in being able to follow the Open-Closed principle.

If we made the speed variable public in our Airplane class, that means anyone can use it. Even incorrectly.

Contact me on Codementor